X-rays have become a rather commonplace tool for people within the art world for several reasons. The example I gave in a previous post was for its use in exposing artistic sketches beneath the final image. These revelations gave a window into Picasso’s artistic process.
X-ray spectroscopy has also become an important method by which to verify the authenticity of a painting. It can determine the materials used, elements within the paint, and the type of paper utilized. This can help pinpoint the painting geographically as well as revealing its age.
To the left below is one of Georges Seurat’s pointilist masterpieces entitled Young Woman Powdering Herself. Apparently, this woman was Seurat’s mistress. X-rays revealed that Seurat had originally painted himself watching her from the window, but later covered this up. It turns out that this would have been Seurat’s only self-portrait.
There are several more of these images here accompanied by other interesting anecdotes. Be sure to click on the images to reveal the sketches beneath!