The Raman effect concerns the inelastic scattering of light from molecules, liquids, or solids. Brian has written a post about it previously, and it is worth reading. Its use today is so commonplace, that one almost forgets that it was discovered back in the 1920s. As the story goes (whether it is apocryphal or not I do not know), C.V. Raman became entranced by the question of why the ocean appeared blue while on a ship back from London to India in 1921. He apparently was not convinced by Rayleigh’s explanation that it was just the reflection of the sky.
When Raman got back to Calcutta, he began studying light scattering from liquids almost exclusively. Raman experiments are nowadays pretty much always undertaken with the use of a laser. Obviously, Raman did not initially do this (the laser was invented in 1960). Well, you must be thinking, he must have therefore conducted his experiments with a mercury lamp (or something similar). In fact, this is not correct either. Initially, Raman had actually used sunlight!
If you have ever conducted a Raman experiment, you’ll know how difficult it can be to obtain a spectrum, even with a laser. Only about one in a million of the incident photons (and sometimes much fewer) actually gets scattered with a change in wavelength! So for Raman to have originally conducted his experiments with sunlight is really a remarkable achievement. It required patience, exactitude and a great deal of technical ingenuity to focus the sunlight.
Ultimately, Raman wrote his results up and submitted them to Nature magazine in 1928. Although these results were based on sunlight, he had just obtained his first mercury lamp to start his more quantitative studies by then. The article made big news because it was a major result confirming the new “quantum theory”, but Raman immediately recognized the capability of this effect in the study of matter as well. After many years of studying the effect, he came to realize that the reason that water is blue is basically the same as why the sky is blue — Rayleigh scattering goes as .
Readers of this blog will actually notice that I have written about Raman scattering in several different contexts on this site, for instance, in measuring the Damon-Eschbach mode and the Higgs amplitude mode in superconductors, illuminating the nature of LO-TO splitting polar insulators and measuring unusual collective modes in Kondo insulators demonstrating its power as probe of condensed matter even in the present time.
On this blog, one of the major themes I’ve tried to highlight is the technical ingenuity of experimentalists to observe certain phenomena. I find it quite amazing that the Raman effect had its rather meager origins in the use of sunlight!