Just a few years after Berry’s breakthrough paper (pdf!) on the phase now named after him, it was recognized by Zak (pdf!) that this effect could play a role in a solid state setting. Zak realized that in the Bloch Hamiltonian, the crystal momentum, **k**, could be treated as a “parameter” similar to how other “parameters” had been treated in Berry’s original work. More concretely:

While phenomena that are now considered prototypical Berry phase effects were understood before the Berry paper, it was Berry who unified many concepts under a general framework. For instance, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Dirac monopole problem and the Integer Quantum Hall Effect were all understood separately, but the Berry phase concept presented a huge leap forward in consolidating these seemingly disparate phenomena.

It should be mentioned that the three cases mentioned above are all instances where the Berry phase is topological and results in a robust quantization through a topological invariant (known as the Chern number). However, the Berry phase does not have to be topological in nature and can have “geometrical” consequences. Many of these “geometrical” consequences are discussed in a great review article by Xiao, Chang and Niu.

One particular “geometrical” consequence stands out: the semiclassical equations of motion for electrons in a solid, as detailed in textbooks such as Ashcroft and Mermin, are incomplete! The application of an electric field in crystals with either broken time-reversal symmetry or broken inversion symmetry may, under certain circumstances, exhibit a transverse velocity associated with a non-zero Berry curvature (i.e. an application of an electric field in the x-direction will result in electrons travelling in the y-direction!). This experimental paper by NP Ong’s group demonstrates this effect (pdf!), and this paper by Karplus and Luttinger (paywall!) theoretically explains the transverse velocity in ferromagnets, again before Berry’s seminal paper.

I’ll also mention briefly that the seemingly mundane phenomenon of electrical polarization in solids is another case that cannot be explained without Berry-esque concepts, but I’ll leave that topic for another day.

It truly is stunning how many effects can be accounted for under the umbrella of Berry/Zak ideas. I’ll even restrain myself from mentioning topological insulators and Chern insulators (paywall) / the quantum anomalous hall effect (paywall).